Who Buys Harley Davidsons?

A lot of people carry the belief that those who have Harley Davidson motorcycles are hardcore, tattoo-laden, testosterone-filled males who guzzle hard liquor and wind up big bar fights. Even though this profile works well in the movies, a vast majority of Harley riders are easygoing, friendly people who give back to society.

Harley Davidson has worked very hard to develop a community of companionship amongst folks who own a Harley. The wildly successful Harley-Owners-Group (HOG) has over 1 million members around the globe. With local divisions around the globe, members unite to share their obsession for the Harley Davidson way of life.

Harley Davidson riders include men and women who range in age from 18 to eighty eight. Some harley riders have been riding Harley Davidson motorcycles for over 50 years. Lots of of the servicemen who fought in World War Two became avid fans of the motorbike, as they were regularly used for transportation in wartime. A certain number of these soldiers still currently ride.

The female population of Harley Davidson owners has significantly risen over the past two decades. Maybe the most well-known female Harley motorcyclists are Avis and Effie Hotchkiss. In 1915, this mother-daughter duo traveled from New York to California on a three speed V-Twin with a sidecar.

A different female leader was Linda Dugeau, co-founder of the Motor Maids, Inc. Linda began riding a Harley Davidson motorbike in 1932. She rode around the USA and stories about her travels were printed in Motorcyclist magazine. In 1938, Dugeau began establishing a network of female motorcyclists, which formally became The Motor Maids. The organization was chartered with the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) in 1941, making it the oldest bike organization for women in North America.

Girls of all ages and backgrounds are showing an interest in motorcycles and the way of life they offer. Not only are more girls riding street bikes, they are also participating in motorbike racing. Female celebrities, such as pop musician, Pink and model, Niki Taylor, are entering the driver’s seat of Harleys and suggesting other girls to ride.

Motorcycle riding is also turning into a popular family activity. Safety equipment is available to protect children while riding and include tether straps, helmets, jackets, chaps, and gloves. Touring bikes and cruisers simplify the task of taking the kids on a weekend camping or road trip. Loads of members of the military are passionate Harley owners. They enjoy the feeling they have when they hit the road and hook up with fellow Harley devotees through sponsored events or charity rides. Harley-Davidson supports various rides for U.S. troops and Veterans’ charities.

A normal trait of individuals who own Harley Davidson motorbikes is that of a giving disposition. Harley owners often embark on charity rides to assist charitable organizations or to provide for the needs of someone in their indigenous community. Harley riders have raised large amounts of money in their fundraising efforts and have supported charities dedicated to cancer research, Alzheimer’s research, Autism and a lot of other admirable causes.

There is a wonderful amount of solidarity and friendship amongst Harley riders. They are a group of zealous people who enjoy the excitement of adventure. One thing is for sure… there is no other activity that unites such a diverse group of people from all walks of life and ages.

Motorcycle Theory Test

The motorcycle theory test is one that is designed to test your knowledge about motorcycle theory, particularly the rules and best practices regarding riding your motorcycle on public roadways. If you want to successfully pass your test the first time, then the key to achieving that goal is to properly prepare yourself for it. There are a number of things that you can do to prepare yourself for this test.

What You'll Need For The Motorcycle Theory Test

In order to take the test you need to have a provisional motorcycle license. This is a permit, so to speak, that states that you can legally drive while preparing to take the actual test to get your license. If you have the provisional license, then you can take the test at any of the DSA testing centers. The written part of the testing process is made up of two different parts. The first part is a 35 question multiple choice section. The second part is a hazard recognition test. Once you have successfully passed both of these sections, then you will be able to take the riding portion of the motorcycle theory test process.

How To Prepare For The Test

You can prepare for the test by reviewing books that contain source material for the multiple choice portion of it. You will learn useful and relevant information when you read these books. You can also find plenty of information online that is relevant to the questions on the test that you will be taking. Often times studying online resources is the most convenient for people because it does not require them to travel to a library or a college campus.

Studying for the hazard perception portion of the motorcycle theory test is also quite simple. There are plenty of online resources that you can use to do so. These resources will give you hazard identification scenarios much like you will see on the actual test.

Completing The Motorcycle Theory Test

If you successfully complete the theory test, you will be given a pass certificate which is good for two years. This certificate is required if you wish to take your actual motorcycle test. If you let your certificate expire before you get a chance to take the motorcycle test, then you will have to take and pass the theory test all over again.

Riding a motorcycle is not as easy as you may think it is and there is a lot to learn with regard to proper riding techniques and safety before you can head out on the open road. The motorcycle theory test is just one stepping stone to become completely prepared for the time you will spend on your motorcycle.

American History – The First Settlers

Would you like to find out what those-in-the-know have to say about Native Americans? The information in the article below comes straight from well-informed experts with special knowledge about Native Americans.

THE EARLIEST KNOWN SETTLERS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT

THE FIRST AMERICANS

At the height of the Ice Age, between 34,000 and 30,000 B.C., much of the world’s water was locked up in vast continental ice sheets. As a result, the Bering Sea was hundreds of meters below its current level, and a land bridge, known as Beringia, emerged between Asia and North America. At its peak, Beringia is thought to have been some 1,500 kilometers wide. A moist and treeless tundra, it was covered with grasses and plant life, attracting the large animals that early humans hunted for their survival.

The first people to reach North America did so without knowing they had crossed into a new continent. They would have been following game, as their ancestors had for thousands of years, along the Siberian coast and then across the land bridge.

You may not consider everything you just read to be crucial information about Native Americans. But don’t be surprised if you find yourself recalling and using this very information in the next few days.

Once in Alaska, it would take these first North Americans thousands of years more to work their way through the openings in great glaciers south to what is now the United States. Evidence of early life in North America continues to be found. Little of it, however, can be reliably dated before 12,000 B.C.; a recent discovery of a hunting lookout in northern Alaska, for example, may date from almost that time. So too may the finely crafted spear points and items found near Clovis, New Mexico.

Similar artifacts have been found at sites throughout North and South America, indicating that life was probably already well established in much of the Western Hemisphere some time prior to 10,000 B.C. Around the time the mammoth began to die out and the bison took its place as a principal source of food and hides for these early North Americans. Over time, as species of large game vanished whether from over hunting or natural causes plants, berries, and seeds became an increasingly important part of the early American diet. Gradually, foraging and the first attempts at primitive agriculture appeared. Native Americans in what is now central Mexico led the way, cultivating corn, squash, and beans, perhaps as early as 8,000 B.C. Slowly, this knowledge spread northward.

By 3,000 B.C., a primitive type of corn was being grown in the river valleys of New Mexico and Arizona. Then the first signs of irrigation began to appear, and, by 300 B.C., signs of early village life.

By the first centuries A.D., the Hohokam were living in settlements near what is now Phoenix, Arizona, where they built ball courts and pyramid like mounds reminiscent of those found in Mexico, as well as a canal and irrigation system.

Sometimes it’s tough to sort out all the details related to this subject, but I’m positive you’ll have no trouble making sense of the information presented above.

A Guide on How to Perform Amazing Cunilingus – 3 Tips to Make You a Master of Oral Pleasure

Cunilingus is one of my favorite sexual moves for several reasons. Firstly, not many guys do it, and those that do are usually terrible at it. This gives me an advantage over any other guys out there, and makes sure that I stick in her mind for a while – putting me fairly high on any girl’s “black book” pretty much straight away.

Secondly, if you know what you’re doing, cunalingus is one of the easiest, most powerful ways to get a woman off that you could ever devise. Unfortunately, many men find cunilingus a foreign and strange animal, so to help them out I’ve written this guide in the hopes that it will allow them to give a woman amazing oral sex. So then, what exactly are the hot tips to giving a girl amazing cunilingus that will have her screaming for more every single time?

1. Be Gentle

You don’t want to know how many horror stories I’ve heard from girls who have had a gentleman try to perform cunilingus on her, only to treat the act like he’s a dog trying to lick the ketchup off a hot dog.

Guys, please, treat this act as it was intended – a slow, sensual rollercoaster ride of wonder. Remember that everything down there is quite sensitive, so there’s no need to apply extra pressure unless she asks you to. In fact, she’ll feel pretty much everything – some girls have said that they quite enjoy the subtle touches, such as a partner tracing the alphabet on her clitoris, for example. Ultimately, remember that small actions can create big differences, so be sure to treat the act appropriately.

2. Find It and Use It

Most guys who are unable to help their girlfriend achieve orgasm are making one very serious mistake – they are ignoring (or, at the very least, not paying enough attention to) the clitoris.

Don’t get me wrong here. No one’s asking you to focus all your attention on it, but please, make sure you give it a generous dose of lovin’. More importantly, when things get really hot and heavy (as in she’s getting close to climax), make sure you focus a lot of stimulation on the clitoris, as rhythmic clitoral stimulation is what is really going to get her off at the end of the day.

3. Try and Secure a Clean Workspace

If you’re not into it, she’ll know. And nothing can be a bigger deterrent for you than a vagina that is hairy and smells strongly.

Of course, bringing this kind of thing up can be very difficult, so try to ensure you are as tactful as possible about it. A good way to get around this is to suggest you both take a shower together as a form of foreplay, which will allow you to have ample opportunities of washing out her vagina under the pretense of heavy foreplay. And if you want her to trim down the hair, or shave it altogether, just ask her – though you might want to try mentioning that it will make things far more pleasurable and sensual for both of you.

If you can apply these useful tips, I promise you your experiences with cunilingus will henceforth be far more positive, and you will enjoy the act a lot more. And as a direct result of this, she will enjoy the act a lot more – and then her experiences with cunilingus will be truly awesome.

ATV Parts and Accessories

An all-terrain vehicle (ATV) is also known as a quad, quad bike, three-wheeler, or four-wheeler, or RZR. It is a super cool vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steering control. ATV is particularly designed to handle a wider range of terrain unlike most other vehicles. It maybe a street-legal vehicle in a few countries, however, it is not legal within most states and provinces of Australia, the United States or Canada.

ATVs are designed for single, but some companies have developed ATVs for the driver and one passenger. These ATVs are known as tandem ATVs.

The rider operates ATV like a motorcycle, but with the extra wheels that gives an extra stability at lower speeds. ATVs are equipped with three wheel, four wheels and even six-wheel models for special applications. Engine sizes of ATVs currently on sale ranges from 49 to 1,000 cc (3 to 61 cu in).

ATVs are smaller, lightweight vehicles that are perfect for touring areas that normal vehicles can’t go. This, however, makes them likely to get banged up easily. The right ATV parts will make sure you’re not limited on the extent of adventures you wish to take. The general ATV parts consist of:

Axles

Axles, Axle Tools, Axle Bearings, Axle Wrenches, Wheel Spacers

Bearings

A-Arm Bearings, Rear Axle Bearings, Wheel Bearings, Swing Arm Bearings, Shock Bearings, Steering Stem Bearings

Body

Front and Rear Fenders, Fuel Tanks, Seats, Bumpers, Nerf Bars, Skid Plates, Snow Plows, Wheel Spacers, Grab Bars

Brakes

Brake Pads, Brake Rotors, Brake Shoes, Brake Fluid, Brake Lines, Brake Accessories

Cooling Systems

Radiators, Coolant, Hose Kits, Water Coolers, Cooling System Parts

Drive

Chains, Sprockets, Chain Guides, Chain Lube, Drive Belts, Drive Tools, Chain and Sprocket Kits

Electrical

Batteries, Spark Plugs, Starters, Ignition Coils and Stators, Lighting, Kill Switches, Hour Meters, Speedometers, Horns, GPS

ATV Parts Engine

Pistons, Oil Filters, Clutch Kits, Gaskets, Valves, Cylinder Parts, Big Bore Kits, Bearings and Seals, Crankshaft Assemblies

ATV Parts Exhaust

4-Stroke Exhaust, 2-Stroke Exhaust, 2-Stroke Silencers, Exhaust Packing, Spark Arrestor, End Caps, Exhaust Accessories

ATV Parts Filters

Fuel Filters, Air Filters, Oil Filters, Pre Filters

ATV Parts Frame-Chassis

Skid Plates, Nerf Bars, Bumpers, A-Arms, Tie Rods, Tie Rod Ends, Fuel Tanks, Racks

ATV Parts Fuel and Air Intake Systems

Air Filters, Fuel Controllers, Fuel Tanks, Carburetor Jets, Fuel Filters, Fuel Lines, Intake Parts, Air Filter Maintenance.

You Dirty Rat: Fossil Fuel Fires Up Global Warming

The temperature is a little warm.

The forecast for this early August 2012 day called for 111 degrees in Fresno / Clovis, Calif. Where I live. That's relatively common in this region, where 40 or more days above 100 is common for summer. But it appears more of the United States is in for similar treatment.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center says July was the hottest month in recorded history.

In fact, its State of the Climate report says, January through July was the warmest first seven months of any year on record for the contiguous United States. The national temperature of 56.4 degrees was 4.3 degrees above the long-term average, with only the Pacific Northwest, which was near average, bucking the trend.

And of course Alaska's a bit cooler. My friend Steve likes to post data on his runs in Anchorage's scenic Kincaid Park. The latest was 55 degrees. Sweltering.

Superheating the atmosphere

This temperature stuff is more than just fodder for oblique discussions of the weather. The ramifications are huge, and most scientists predict dire consequences should the trend not be reversed.

Author and climate activist Bill McKibben spells out the scenario in stark terms. In a piece for Rolling Stone, which has some of the best investigative journalism in the country, it highlights three numbers to watch.

The first is 2 degrees Celsius, which refers to the window the world has before it succumbs to significant effects of climate change. The second is 563 gigatons of carbon dioxide, which reflects to the amount of climate warm pollutants that can be released before we hit that two degree threshold.

Carbon dioxide, public enemy

The third, and perhaps most significant McKibben number, is 2,795 gigatons of carbon dioxide. That's the amount of carbon locked up in all the known reserves of oil and coal. Should those reserves be exploited and the fossil fuels burned, we'll be well on the path to universal environmental destruction.

The cost would be astronomical, the destruction unparallel.

The path to dealing with this appears obvious. Or relatively. Fossil fuels stand as the most cost fuel on the planet. But society would prefer to kick the can to the next generation.

Who's the bad guy?

Pushing fossil fuels

McKibben says it's obvious.The bad guys are coal and oil executives.

"Climate change operates on a geological scale and time frame, but it's not an impersonal force of nature; the more carefully you do the math, the more importantly you realize that this is, at bottom, a moral issue; we have met the enemy And they are Shell, "he says.

Unfortunately, the oil companies hold the enviable position of having more money than their critics. While BP reported a loss of $ 2.2 billion for the second quarter of 2012, it's still doing fine. That compares with net profit of $ 5.7 billion for the same period a year earlier.

The Associated Press reports BP's revenue for the quarter declined 9 percent and the company set aside another $ 847 million for the Gulf of Mexico oil rig disaster and cleanup, "taking the total provision to just over $ 38 billion."

Money is the game

Not a problem. BP can afford it. In fact, it's created an ad campaign that portrays the company in such beneficent terms, its past fades to distant-memory status. Says Hamilton Nolan of gawker.com: "Remember how BP's relentless pursuit of profits at the expense of safety caused the Gulf of Mexico to be flooded with oil a little while ago? What I do remember is BP's absolutely awesome Olympic spirit! "

Earnings-wise, Royal Dutch Shell and Exxon Mobil fared better with Shell posting second quarter profit of $ 5.7 billion, down 13 percent from the same period a year earlier, and Exxon showing $ 8.4 billion, down 22 percent, according to the New York Times. Reporter Clifford Krauss quotes Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson saying, "Despite global economic uncertainty, we continue to invest throughout the business cycle, taking a long-term view of resource development."

Talk like that drives McKibben nuts. "There's not a more reckless man on the planet," he says of Tillerson. He adds that Tillerson told Wall Street analysts he plans to spend $ 37 billion on a year on exploration through 2016.

Averting disaster

The problem is that oil companies hold the future of the planet in their hands, and as long as they keep making scads of money, they will not be backing away from extracting, refining and burning as much of their fossil fuel reserves as possible. McKibben says the only way to deal with this is to tax carbon, making alternative energy more economic.

Of course, alternative energy is currently struggling its way to fossil-fuel parity already. But it could use a boost.

In the meantime, McKibben says the best recourse is moral outrage for those who would like to stop this pell-mell push to global warming. Enemy No. 1 is not Jimmy Cagney, nor is it Snidely Whiplash (both personal favorites). It's a bunch of rich executives ruining the globe for a few dollars more.

Gaining Writing Experience

GAINING WRITING EXPERIENCE

Some Catch-22, huh? In the writing business, you can not get published until you have some experience. If you can not get published until you have experience, how do you get experience? How do you get publishing clips to show all those publishers who want to see "previously published clips"? It's almost as if Lily Tomlin's telephone operator character came up with this: "Is this the party to what I'm speaking? Are you the unpublished writer who has published clips I can look at? (Snort, snort!)"

What's an unpublished writer to do? Get published, of course! I'm not being flippant; I'm serious. Think about your life. There are a number of things you can write about right now (essays and travel articles about that great place you stumbled upon last summer). There is a lot more you can write about if you do a little research (an article regarding something that has been on your mind-your mother's illness? The stringent standards of learning being enforced upon elementary school students?). How about doing an article about the writer's conference you attended?

Now you have your ideas, but where do you get them published? You may start with your local newspaper. If they're like most newspapers, they're in need of fillers from time to time. They may even be in need of freelance reporters during the summer and the holiday seasons. Talk with your newspaper's editor. Be frank. Tell him / her that you need some publishing experience in order build your portfolio. In addition to putting some published clips in your "clip file," you'll also gain valuable experience and hone your craft. Then when you write that novel starring the investigative reporter, you'll know the lingo … and the editor can say, "I knew that author when …"

Op-ed pieces are another way to go; And if you query the right market, you could make some good money while acquiring these published clips. We all have opinions. If you can write about a hot subject and express your opinion on it succinctly and objectively, you're in the position to write an op-ed piece. Let's go back to the standards of learning issue. While you realize little Johnny needs to get a good education, you also realize the importance of playtime and "down time." You do not want Johnny to be a prime candidate for a stress-induced heart attack at age 32. Many other parents feel this way. Some do not. Some would say, "Standards of learning?" Talk with other parents to get conflicting views and write the article.

Although some shudder at the very words "non-paying market," if you're an unpublished writer seeking clips, it's a good alternative. After you get those clips, it's not so great to work for free; But at this point, you need the exposure and experience, and they need the articles. I think it's a fair trade as long as you work for a web site, e-zine, print magazine, newsletter, or even charitable organization that you would be proud to have worked for. It will not do you any good to have clips with grammatical errors (either yours or their) or content that is not credible.

Entering contests is another way to get clips, though this is more of a writing sample. Still, if you win or even place in the contest, this will lend some weight to your writing. This is especially true if you're a genre writer. Romance Writers of America even has a contest called the Golden Heart Contest wherein the winner has the "best unpublished manuscript." Malice Domestic is a contest for mystery writers. While these "biggie" contests are great, small contests are a boon to the unpublished writer as well. One caveat: There are a lot of bogus contests out there. Before you pay any sort of fee, check out the contest.

So where do I find all these places to get published or get noticed or gain some recognition as a writer? Well, you can find some by clicking on the links below:

NEWSPAPERS:

This link gives you information about newspapers in all fifty states and provides links to many of the news' web sites.

Http://www.50states.com/news/

OP-ED PIECES:

Adbusters (paying market)

Guidelines: [http://adbusters.org/information/guidelines]

Home & Family (paying market)

Guidelines: [http://www.worldwidefreelance.com/guidelines/homefam.htm]
Woman Abroad (offers both paying and non-paying opportunities)

Guidelines: [http://www.worldwidefreelance.com/Retired/womanabroad.htm]

The Sacramento Bee

Guidelines: http://www.sna.com/sacbedit/opedinfo.html

Additional Op-Ed Markets include:

Chicago Reader, Daily News of Los Angeles, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Philadelphia Inquirer, San Francisco Chronicle Forum, The Star Ledger, Star Tribune, The Chronicle of Higher Education and Washington Free Press.

[Http://www.writersdatabase.com/oped.shtml]

NON-PAYING MARKETS:

There are 285 listings for non-paying markets at http://www.writerswrite.net/pubsrch3.cfm .

CONTESTS:

Freelance Writing.com

[Http://www.freelancewriting.com/contests.html]

Writing-World.com

[Http://www.tipsforwriters.com/contests/index.html]

Who Invented Opera?

Opera was invented in Florence, Italy towards the latter part of the 16th century by a group of wealthy intellectuals and musicians. Their goal was to reproduce the dramas of the ancient Greeks using the plays and text that already existed. Europe was in the throes of the Renaissance period and during that time, architects, musicians, and writers became fascinated with ancient cultures, particularly the Greeks. The ancient plays indicated that music was used as an accompaniment; however, no music had been recorded. The Renaissance Italians began reciting the plays out loud and adding musical notes as they recited. This eventually caused them to start singing the text as they recited and led to the invention of opera.

In 1607, Monteverdi invented the very first opera which he titled La Favola d’Orfeo, which translated means The Legend of Orpheus. This opera is still performed today, over 400 years later. The first operas emphasized the words of the dramas with music merely playing second fiddle to the narrative during small interludes. However, as professional composers became involved, they added choruses, dances, and complicated, showy songs called Arias to showcase the actor’s vocal talents.

Venice opened the first opera house in 1637 and quickly became the center of opera with the opening of 16 additional opera theaters. Popularity spread through Italy and then on to England, Spain, Russia, Germany, Portugal, France, and the rest of Europe. The major opera centers of the 1700’s were London, Naples, Paris, and Vienna. While operas were first written in Italian, eventually composers began writing in their native languages. The most famous composers include Strauss, Tchaikovsky, Wagner, Handel, Verdi, Puccini, Monteverdi, Mozart, Berlioz, Britten, and Janacek.

Opera finally made its way to America in the 1800’s, brought by immigrants from Europe. The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City is the most famous opera theater in America and was opened in 1883. Despite the proliferation of modern writers and composers, the most popular operas performed worldwide to this day were written during the 18th and 19th century.

Opera glossary:

Aria: Instrumental or vocal melody.

Ballad Opera: Dance, dialogue, and song combined.

Finale: The last part of the play.

Musical Comedy: Songs, music, and dancing.

Operetta: A cheerful opera.

Overture: Musical piece at the start of the opera.

Synopsis: An operas story.

Baritone: Deep male voice, usually an evil character.

Bass: Deepest male voice, usually old, wise or funny men.

Castrato: Singer who has been castrated to preserve their childlike vocal tone.

Contralto: Rare, dark female voice, usually an old woman, witch, or grandmother.

Mezzo-soprano: Second highest female voice, usually a temptress, witch, or mature woman.

Prima Donna: Lead female singer, usually the most popular singer in the play.

Soprano: Highest female singer, usually the heroine but can be other funny characters.

Tenor: Highest male singers.

History of Iganna Town, Oyo State, Nigeria, West Africa

History of Iganna Town

The Sabiganna of Iganna origin is traceable to Adebiyi, one of the grandsons of Oduduwa known as Onisabe.

After the demise of Adebiyi – the Onisabe of Sabe, it was the wish of the people that his son called Gandi Sabi Safa to ascend the throne of Onisabe but the kingmakers had the contrary view because he was not the heir of the Onisabe and they insisted that the first son of the Oba should succeed his father on the throne.

Consequently, Sabi Gandi and his supporter left Sabe (now in the Republic of Benin) and returned to Yoruba land, their ancestral homeland. He left Sabe with his two wives – Bolujiro and Oluorikan. Bolujiro begat Ajibilu while Oluorikan begat Alokolodo. Both Ajibilu and Alokolodo later ascend the throne of their father.

Ajibilu begat Etielu, Baya, Agunloye, Ajimati and Polajo while Alokolodo begat the Alokolodo dynasty.

In short, Gandi Sabi Safa after consultation with Ifa Oracle settled down at Iganna immediately after Ofiki river in accordance with the directive of the oracle but before he settled down, he observed a hut pitched by a man called Balako who was happy to lead him to Alaafin, the owner of the land. Gandi was pleased beyond words at the mention of Alaafin name that his father uses to tell him about before his death, that they were from the same mother.

This promted Gandi to meet Alaafin and narrated his story. Although he was welcomed by Alaafin but the Tapa war was his great concern. Gandi promised to spur his army into action to joined hand with Alaafin to fight the war and eventually won and brought the decapitated head of the Tapa King to the Alaafin.

Consequently, Gandi received the Royal blessing of the Alaafin who handed over staff of Authority known as “Opagun” and instructed him to install chiefs bearing all the titles known under the Alaafin and that is why the chieftaincy titles like Basorun (Bada), Asipa (Basipa), Samu (Basamu), Akinnuku, Lagunna, Gbonka and Agbaakin are installed by the Sabiganna till today.

In the old Oyo Empire, Iganna was known to be powerful. Then, for administrative conveniences, the descendants of Oranmiyan or the Alaafin were divided into four distinct families known by their distinctive dialects and forming the four provinces of Yoroba proper.

(i) The Ekun Otun or Western province which included all the towns along the right bank of the River Ogun down to Iberekodo. Iganna was the chief town. Other important towns were Okeho, Iseyin, Iwere-Ile, Ijio, Eruwa, Iwawun, Iberekodo, idiyan, Ibode, Igboho, Ipapo, Kisi, Ado-Awaye and Ibarapas etc.

(ii) Ekun Osi or Metropolitan province comprised all the towns east of Oyo; Ilorin, Ogbomosho, Ikoyi, being the chief town, other important towns are the Igbonas, Oro, Irawo etc.

(iii) The Ibolo province lies to the South-East of the Ekun Osi towns as far as Ede, Iresa being the chief town. Other important towns are: Ofa, Oyan, Okuku, Ikirun, Osogbo, Ido, Ilobu, Ejigbo and Ede.

(iv) The Epo (weeds) are the towns lying to the south and South-West of Oyo, the chief town of which was Oluwo of Iwo. Other important towns in this division were: Masifa, Ife-Odan, Ara, Iwo, Ilora, Akinmorin, Fiditi, Awe, Ago Oja.

Summarily, the word ‘IGANNA’ literally denotes wall fence in Yoroba language. The town is known and addressed as IGANNA and the title of the king as SABIGANNA because it captures and preserves the historical antecedents of the town on how Gandi Sabi Safa our founding father emigrated from Sabe in the present Republic of Benin as a result of chieftaincy tussle between him and his brother in the interest of peace. This accounts for why Iganna people are peace-loving till date.

History had it that Sabe was fence round with an entrance gate as it was done in the past for security reason. When Gandi Sabi Safa decided to migrate from the town with his supporters so as to avert pandemonium that could ensued because of the chieftaincy tussle between him and his elder brother after the demise of their father – Adebiyi, he considered it wise to escape through the wall fence with a ladder rather than to be declared security risk that could go out and reinforce to attack the town by security guards that man the main entrance to the fenced Sabe.

In an attempt to preserve this historical experience, Gandi and his supporters decided to name their new found land, IGANNA and the title of the king, SABIGANNA which is the coinage of SABI that climbed the wall fence (IGANNA) to escape with his supporters; SABIGANNA.

THE DEITIES CELEBRATED IN IGANNA ARE:

1. Egungun: It is always celebrated in the month of August of each year.

2. Sango/Odun Balogun: Celebrated in the month of September of each year.

3. Oosii: Celebrated also in September.

4. Odua: Celebrated in October.

5. Orisa_nla Ajobo: Celebrated in October.

6. Osun: Celebrated in October.

7. Oro Mojesi (always last for seven days): Celebrated in October.

8. Yante: Celebrated in October.

9. Ifa Tite: Celebrated in November.

The cultural heritage of the Iganna includes the Onko dialect of the Oyo tribe. The people are predominantly farmers. Cloth weaving (Aso_Oke) is also an occupation of the indigenes of Iganna. Apart from these, trading is also one of the ancient occupations of the town. According to history, the people of Iganna do trek from Iganna to Abeokuta, Ibadan, Lagos and other neighbouring towns/villages for the purpose of trading in the ancient days.

The Iganna people dress in all known Yoroba outfits. These includes Gbariye, Siki, Dandongo, Buba and Sokoto (males), Iro and Buba (females), with Sanyan Cap and Gele to match.

Hunting is another predominant occupation of the people of Iganna. The predominant food of farmers in the Yoroba tribe are also food of people of Iganna such as Oka (Amala), Iyan (Pounded Yam), Eko jije, Eko mimu, Lanfun (Cassava flour), with Egusi soup and other vegetables.

Fishing is also a paramount occupation of the Iganna, hence, the people are described as Iganna a fie yin be lu Odo… meaning, the people of Iganna do jump into river in a backward style for swimming.

Iganna people are also warriors according to history. E.g., Tapa war, Dahomey war during Alaafin Obalokun at Oyoro.

What Would an Invasion of North Korea Achieve?

The world awaits a solution to the stand-off over the nuclear missile threat posed by the president of North Korea, Kim Jong-un. His chief opponent is Donald Trump, the newly elected president of the USA. Over the time since his ascension to the top job the North Korean has put the Americans on notice that he will build an inter-continental-ballistic-missile capable of reaching America. It appears that he has achieved that goal.

The question is what will Trump do about it? The crisis has escalated over the last few days because of the anti-American rhetoric and provocation by his foe who is taunting him into making a move by his actions.

The next question is what will the other nations within range also do? The latest test proves that Kim has a capability of reaching as far as Australia and all the nations in a circle of that distance around him. Those most nervous include Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and even India.

Globally there is a nervousness that will never subside until something major happens. For some 67 years the threat of retaliation by the North against the South and its allies has existed. On 25th June, 1950, an army of 75,000 poured across the 38th parallel and within a week had control of Seoul.

The trigger for the invasion happened, apparently, at the end of World War II when the allies were given control over the peninsula after 35 years of Japanese occupation. It happened that the Soviet Union and the USA were given joint partnership of its administration.

The Communist regime of the USSR fostered the rise of Kim il-Sun in the north to head a communist government. The USA supported Syngman Rhee and a provisional government in the south. The result was catastrophic as the two opposites and their hostile armies faced each other across the 38th parallel.

It was also going to lead to the war and the inclusion of 21 nations who rose to the defence of South Korea. They provided military equipment, armies, and all the necessary side-lines to the defence of South Korea.

By November the Chinese had entered the war on the side of North Korea and therein lies a different tale to what the West expects today. Both China and North Korea have communist led philosophies of rule. It is hard to imagine that one will side against the other. Putin, on the other hand, who inherited the greatly diminished Soviet Union, is openly favouring the dictators who are opposing the USA and the West.

Given Russia’s support of North Korea in the past and the connection between the leaders, Putin and Xi Jinping, one must wonder if the old war is about to begin again. The Chinese President has made frequent trips to Russia and vice-versa in recent months. The last just a few days ago.

Something is cooking and something big will result. What that will be is anyone’s guess but Russia is expanding its forces into the Pacific region. One of its war-ships was spotted off the Australian Coast a couple of weeks ago, although in International waters.

China has made huge inroads into Australia over the last few years and even has a lease on the Port of Darwin. Its people have bought up land and homes here and its investment is a worry for many Australians who see it as a threat to our security. We are not safe and no matter whether the USA invades the North Korean region or not there is something going on that the world holds its breath to discover what it is.

An invasion of that type would be ugly, devastating, and lead directly to a major war between the most powerful nations. The question is are we prepared for it as there may be no winners and nothing good achieved?

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